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He served Bishop of Byzantium for four years (144 – 148). In the patriarchal lists of Patriarch Nikiforos and Nikiforos Kallistos he is named Athenodorus, whereas in other lists he is found under the name Athenogenes. During his bishopric, the tyran Zeuxippos was governing the City, and there was a rapid increase of christian population. Then, Bishop Athenodorus left Argyroupolis and built a second temple, and possibly also a house for the bishop, in the area of Elaia. This temple was then rebuilt by Great Constantine with splendour, because he wished to be buried in it. Nonetheless, it was decided that emperors' bodies should not be buried outside the city of Byzantium, and another place was reserved for their burial. Then, the temple at Elaia was venerated at the memory of the seven youth Makkabees and Eleazar their teacher.

From the time of Athenodorus (Athenogenes) onwards, the Bishops lived and serviced in the new temple of the diocese, i.e. the temple of Elaia.